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Macrophage inflammatory proteins 1-α (MIP-1α/CCL3) binds to cell surface receptors CCR1 and CCR5. It is a proinflammatory chemokine, leading to chemotaxis and activation of immune cells. It also inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, by binding to one of the HIV coreceptors, CCR5, it suppresses HIV infection.